178. Kings and Queens of England
most countries no longer have kings and queens.
However, some countries have remained as monarchies,
including England and its former colonies.
However, even in these countries,
the monarch is a ceremonial figure who no longer has any real power over his or her subjects.
These countries are called constitutional monarchies
because they are democracies in which the monarch remains the official head of state.
Many years ago, the kings and queens of England did have real power,
but gradually this power was transferred to the people and their elected officials.
It is interesting to examine how this transition occurred.
Even in very early times,
the king of England did not have absolute power.
He was the most powerful man in the country,
but he could not entirely force his will upon others.
If he became too demanding,
he might face opposition from powerful local land-owners.
These men, called the barons, might resist a king who tried to become too strong.
This is exactly what happened in the year 1215.
The king of England had made many unreasonable demands upon the country,
and the barons decided to resist.
They forced the king to agree to a list of rules that would limit his power.
These rules were written in a famous document called the Magna Carta.
This document described not only the rights of the barons,
but also of the common people of England.
During the next few hundred years, the kings still had much power.
However, some other people, such as the landowners
and the richer men of the towns, also had influence.
Their meetings became known as Parliaments,
and the king had to share power with the parliament.
During the 1640s, one king tried to rule without Parliament,
and tried to take away the rights of Parliament.
This led to a civil war, and the king was defeated.
England soon became a monarchy again,
but it became clear that Parliament would have more power than the king.
Until the twentieth century,
the Parliaments of England became more democratic,
as more and more people were allowed to vote.
Today, England still has a constitutional monarchy.
But not all English-speaking countries recognize the English queen.
For example, the United States became an independent country over 200 years ago
and has become a republic ever since.
In some countries, there is the debate about the future of the monarchy.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand still recognize the queen of England as their own queen
even though those countries are no longer governed by England.
Many people in those countries want to abolish the monarchy.
They believe that their countries should now have their own head of state.
On the other hand, some people in those countries
want to keep the monarchy because it reminds them of their country's early history.
This is an ongoing topic of debate for Canadians, Australians, and New Zealanders.